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❶And even though associating with similar people can have social benefits for those people, it can lead investors and firms to leave a lot of money on the table.

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However, their in-flight services are limited. For example, customers have to pay if they want any drinks or food. There are always some complains about seats overbooking from customers. Ryanair has committed itself to safe operations and has put in place extensive safety training programs to ensure the recruitment of suitably qualified pilots and maintenance personnel.

In addition, the company is also committed to the operation and maintenance of its aircraft in accordance with the highest European Aviation Industry Standards, which are closely monitored by the Irish Aviation Authority. COM, which within three months of its launch was taking over 50, bookings per week, by offering unbelievably low airfares. The passenger acceptance of this website enabled Ryanair to reduce travel agent commission.

Ryanair is well positioned in European market to implement its low cost strategy. After the full EU air transport deregulation in , Ryanair was free to set up new routes to Continental Europe.

Financial Situation The major revenues of Ryanair gain from the tickets that they sold during the year. That is the only different with the tangible stock value. Once the tickets are sold, the company gets the revenues from the operation.

They have amount of cash and debt. The company uses cash to pay the relevant cost, like staff wages, fuel and oil cost, marketing and distribution cost and so on. The rest of the revenues are kept in retained profit as the capital of company. If the profit grows, the company share price will increase accordingly. Once the share price increased, the shareholders will enjoy the prior return on their investment, more and more investors will have more interest in the company.

Therefore, the company achieves the source of finance. After that, they should consider about where they should invest to growth in the market and expand their company. It includes net cash inflow from operating activities: This should thank for the contribution of the sales team. Ryanair insists to offer lower airfares in European countries and try to increase sales continuously. Increased revenue is one of the major sources of finance.

This figure is a little bit high according to their sale growth. They should invest the cash flow to generate more return. We can see the profit is increasing; the capital of the company is increasing. Because the market is growing, Ryanair should think about where they should invest and how. Invest new aircraft, improve quality of service or setup new routes. Continued strong cash flows generated from trading operations combined with the proceeds of the London offering and the receipt of debt financing for the first of the Boeing next generation aircraft, has allowed the group to increase its cash on hand by 74m.

Before Ryanair makes decision about buying what type of aircraft, the two alternatives would be mutually exclusive, in that the choice of one will exclude the other. Return On capital Employed: Ratio Analysis Ratios are quiet common method of analyzing financial management. Ratios make comparisons with: The performance of the business in previous years The budgeted or planned performance in the current years The performance of similar business.

The ratios make easier to make better decision. However, there are some limitations in ratio analysis. Stefan Thomke discusses how watchmaker A. Online retailers should take a tip from brick-and-mortar shops: Shove your best deals to the back of the store. Research by Thales Teixeira and Donald Ngwe. Most investments in startups should never be made, at least when using by-the-numbers reasoning.

But funded they are. Laura Huang believes investors use gut instinct to manage that risk. Over the last 20 years, shortcomings of classical asset-pricing models have motivated research in developing alternative methods for measuring ex ante expected stock returns. This study evaluates the main paradigms for deriving firm-level expected return proxies ERPs and proposes a new framework for estimating them.

A study by Boris Vallee and Yao Zeng says savvy investors on peer-to-peer lending platforms are upsetting a delicate balance that makes those systems work for borrowers.

Governments sometimes consider targeted price controls when popular goods become less affordable. Bill George says it's actually not much of a debate: The increasing availability of big data can improve measurement of real consumption in closer to real time.

This study shows that online prices may enhance data of the International Comparisons Program, dramatically improving the frequency and transparency of purchasing power parities compared with traditional data collection methods. A podcast featuring faculty discussing cases they've written and the lessons they impart.

We find similar evidence in an international sample of earnings call transcripts from the UK, Canada, France, and Japan. Cole , Daniel Stein and Jeremy Tobacman This paper estimates how experimentally-manipulated experiences with a novel financial product, rainfall index insurance, affect subsequent insurance demand. Using a seven-year panel, we develop three main findings. First, recent experience matters for demand, consistent with overinference from small samples.

Second, spillovers also matter, in the sense that the recent payout experience of village co-residents affects insurance demand about as much as one's own recent payout experience. Third, the spillover effect decays as time passes while the effect of one's own experience does not. We discuss implications of this analysis for commercial sustainability of this complicated but promising risk management technology.

Papers and Proceedings , no. Article Review of Financial Studies Expectations of Returns and Expected Returns Robin Greenwood and Andrei Shleifer We analyze time-series of investor expectations of future stock market returns from six data sources between and The six measures of expectations are highly positively correlated with each other, as well as with past stock returns and with the level of the stock market.

However, investor expectations are strongly negatively correlated with model-based expected returns. The evidence is not consistent with rational expectations representative investor models of returns. Greenwood, Robin, and Andrei Shleifer. Hanson Most home mortgages in the United States are fixed-rate loans with an embedded prepayment option.

When long-term rates decline, the effective duration of mortgage-backed securities MBS falls due to heightened refinancing expectations. I show that these changes in MBS duration function as large-scale shocks to the quantity of interest rate risk that must be borne by professional bond investors. I develop a simple model in which the risk tolerance of bond investors is limited in the short run, so these fluctuations in MBS duration generate significant variation in bond risk premia.

Specifically, bond risk premia are high when aggregate MBS duration is high. The model offers an explanation for why long-term rates could appear to be excessively sensitive to movements in short rates and explains how changes in MBS duration act as a positive-feedback mechanism that amplifies interest rate volatility.

I find strong support for these predictions in the time series of US government bond returns. Working Paper Financial Repression in the European Sovereign Debt Crisis Bo Becker and Victoria Ivashina By the end of , the share of government debt held by the domestic banking sectors of Eurozone countries was more than twice its level.

We show that this type of increasing reliance on the domestic banking sector for absorbing government bonds generates a crowding out of corporate lending. For a given domestic firm, new debt is less likely to be a loan—i. These effects are most pronounced in the period following the second Greek bailout in early Becker, Bo, and Victoria Ivashina.

What were the major challenges? And, what was the best path for the company going forward? Groysberg, Boris, and Sarah L. Madrian This chapter provides an overview of household finance. The first part summarizes key facts regarding household financial behavior, emphasizing empirical regularities that are inconsistent with the standard classical economic model and discussing extensions of the classical model and explanations grounded in behavioral economics that can account for the observed patterns.

This part covers five topics: The second part addresses interventions that firms, governments, and other parties deploy to shape household financial outcomes: Beshears, John, James J.

Choi, David Laibson, and Brigitte C. Article Harvard Business Review July—August The Other Diversity Dividend Paul Gompers and Silpa Kovvali Researchers have struggled to establish a causal relationship between diversity and financial performance—especially at large companies, where decision rights and incentives can be murky, and the effects of any given choice can be tough to pin down.

VC firms are fairly flat: Every investor is a decision maker, and choices have clear business consequences. After examining tens of thousands of VC investments, Gompers has found that diversity significantly improves financial performance on measures such as profitable investments at the individual portfolio-company level and overall fund returns.

And even though associating with similar people can have social benefits for those people, it can lead investors and firms to leave a lot of money on the table. In this article Gompers and Kovvali describe the research and provide recommendations for reaping the business benefits of diversity. Gompers, Paul, and Silpa Kovvali.

Whillans Can money buy happiness? To examine this question, research in economics, psychology, and sociology has focused almost exclusively on examining the associations between income, spending or wealth and subjective well-being.

Moving beyond this research, we provide the first empirical evidence that credit scores uniquely predict happiness. Respondents with higher credit scores felt more optimistic about their future, promoting happiness. Together, these results suggest that creditworthiness can plausibly increase well-being, either directly or indirectly, meaning that interventions to improve creditworthiness could improve consumer welfare.

In its many military coups and political uprisings, typically each government used artificially low energy prices to keep the population subdued and the revenues from YPF to finance these subsidies or worse to line their pockets. Many of the interventionist measures that Argentina's governments imposed on the energy sector, such as price controls and at the most extreme nationalization, made it nearly impossible for private sector energy players to succeed or for the public sector to invest in its development.

After severe blackouts in the summer of , many Argentines in the country's most populous cities were outraged and went to the streets in protest.

Sample Essay: The Impact of a Fluctuating Economy on the Real Estate Industry

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Introduction - Keeping current with the most recent academic finance articles and working papers, using only the internet, is not easy. I have tried to collect below a list of sites that can be visited regularly to keep up to date on the latest leading research in finance, as well as more comprehensive lists of research-related and other interesting sites.

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Research in International Business and Finance (RIBAF) seeks to consolidate its position as a premier scholarly vehicle of academic finance. The. Open access to lectures on finance, Karachi Stock Exchange data, and macroeonomic data of Pakistan.